Anthelmintics in the absence of vaccines have underpinned a parasite control strategy for over 50 years. However, the continued development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) threatens this control. Measuring early AR is difficult as there many routes that resistance can arise from within multi-nematode populations operating complex metabolism capabilities coupled to different drug management pressures. There is an urgent need to identify and measure early resistance in the field situation. Proteomic profiling of expressed soluble proteins offers a new approach to reveal a drug resistant phenotype within a complex protein pattern. The hypothesis under test was that established differences in drug response phenotypes between nematode isolates can also be measured in their comparative proteomes. As a case study, proteomic differences were measured between an ivermectin resistant and susceptible adult female Haemonchus contortus. Adult H. contortus females were extracted from the abomasa of six lambs. The nematodes had been maintained in the lambs as monospecific isolates of either ivermectin susceptible or ivermectin resistant worms. Comparative analysis of the soluble proteome was completed along with immuno-proteomic analysis using pooled infection sera from the lambs. Following image analysis, spots of interest were excised and analysed by peptide mass fingerprinting and the proteins putatively identified using BLAST. Overall, a relative increase in the expression of proteins involved in the detoxification metabolic area was observed in the resistant isolate. In addition, Western blotting analysis also revealed differences in immuno-reactivity profiles between resistant and susceptible isolates. It can be concluded from this study that proteomic differences can be detectable between ivermectin susceptible and a resistant isolates of H. contortus, which could be further explored using other isolates to confirm if proteomic based fingerprinting offers molecular phenotyping or a new panel of resistance biomarkers. Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Haemonchus contortus, Phenotypes, Anthelmintics, Proteomics, Parasite control