The scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon

Authors Organisations
  • I. A. Crawford(Author)
    Birkbeck, University of London
  • K. H. Joy(Author)
    Birkbeck, University of London
  • B. J. Kellett(Author)
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
  • Manuel Grande(Author)
  • M. Anand(Author)
    British Natural History Museum
  • N. Bhandari(Author)
    Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
  • Tony Cook(Author)
  • L. d'Uston(Author)
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/UPS
  • V. A. Fernandes(Author)
    Berkeley Geochronology Center
  • O. Gasnault(Author)
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/UPS
  • J. Goswami(Author)
    Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
  • C. J. Howe(Author)
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
  • J. Huovelin(Author)
    University of Helsinki
  • D. Koschny(Author)
    University of Helsinki
  • D. J. Lawrence(Author)
    Johns Hopkins University
  • B. J. Maddison(Author)
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
  • S. Maurice(Author)
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/UPS
  • S. Narendranath(Author)
    Indian Space Research Organisation
  • C. Pieters(Author)
    Brown University
  • T. Okada(Author)
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)
  • D. A. Rothery(Author)
    Open University
  • S. S. Russell(Author)
    British Natural History Museum
  • P. Sreekumar(Author)
    Indian Space Research Organisation
  • B. Swinyard(Author)
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
  • M. Wieczorek(Author)
    Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPG)
  • M. C. Wilding(Author)
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-734
Number of pages10
JournalPlanetary and Space Science
Issue number7
Early online date24 Dec 2008
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009
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The UK-built Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) will fly as an ESA instrument on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, launched in October 2008. C1XS builds on experience gained with the earlier D-CIXS instrument on SMART-1, but will be a scientifically much more capable instrument. Here we describe the scientific objectives of this instrument, which include mapping the abundances of the major rock-forming elements (principally Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca and Fe) in the lunar crust. These data will aid in determining whether regional compositional differences (e.g., the Mg/Fe ratio) are consistent with models of lunar crustal evolution. C1XS data will also permit geochemical studies of smaller scale features, such as the ejecta blankets and central peaks of large impact craters, and individual lava flows and pyroclastic deposits. These objectives all bear on important, and currently unresolved, questions in lunar science, including the structure and evolution of any primordial magma ocean, as revealed by vertical and lateral geochemical variations in the crust, and the composition of the lunar mantle, which will further constrain theories of the Moon's origin, thermal history and internal structure.


  • moon, lunar science, x-ray spectorscopy