SMART-1 technology, scientific results and heritage for future space missions

Authors Organisations
  • Bernard Foing(Author)
    European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC)
  • G. Racca(Author)
  • A. Marini(Author)
  • D. Koschny(Author)
  • D. Frew(Author)
  • B. Grieger(Author)
  • O. Camino-Ramos(Author)
  • J. L. Josset(Author)
  • Manuel Grande(Author)
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-148
Number of pages8
JournalPlanetary and Space Science
Early online date08 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 01 Feb 2018
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Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 L of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1 and future international lunar exploration.

We review SMART-1 highlights and new results that are relevant to the preparation for future lunar exploration. The technology and methods had impact on space research and applications. Recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) radio observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. On these respective topics, we discuss recent SMART-1 results and challenges. We also discuss the use of SMART-1 publications library. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support the goals of ILEWG. SMART-1 has been useful to prepare for Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E 1, the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the LCROSS impact, future lunar landers and upcoming missions, and to contribute towards objectives of the Moon Village and future exploration.


  • moon, planetary processes, geology, geochemistry, regolith, impacts, exploration, space technology, spacecraft, miniaturised instruments, operations, ion propulsion