Reasons of Singles for Being SingleEvidence from Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Japan and the UK

Authors Organisations
  • Menelaos Apostolou(Author)
    University of Nicosia
  • Béla Birkás(Author)
    University of Pécs
  • Caio Santos A. da Silva(Author)
    University of São Paulo
  • Gianluca Esposito(Author)
    Nanyang Technological University
    University of Trento
  • Rafael Ming Chi S. Hsu(Author)
    University of São Paulo
  • Peter Karl Jonason(Author)
    University of Padova
    Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
  • Konstantinos Karamanidis(Author)
    University of Nicosia
  • Jiaqing O(Author)
  • Yohsuke Ohtsubo(Author)
    University of Tokyo
  • Ádám Putz(Author)
    University of Pécs
  • Daniel Sznycer(Author)
    University of Montreal
  • Andrew G. Thomas(Author)
    Prifysgol Abertawe | Swansea University
  • Jaroslava Varella Valentova(Author)
    University of São Paulo
  • Marco Antonio Correa Varella(Author)
    University of São Paulo
  • Karel Kleisner(Author)
    Charles University
  • Jaroslav Flegr(Author)
    Charles University
    National Institute of Mental Health
  • Yan Wang(Author)
    Fudan University
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-350
Number of pages32
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number4
Early online date15 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2021
Permanent link
Show download statistics
View graph of relations
Citation formats


The current research aimed to examine the reasons people are single, that is, not in an intimate relationship, across eight different countries—Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Japan, and the UK. We asked a large cross-cultural sample of single participants (N = 6,822) to rate 92 different possible reasons for being single. These reasons were classified into 12 factors, including one’s perceived inability to find the right partner, the perception that one is not good at flirting, and the desire to focus on one’s career. Significant sex and age effects were found for most factors. The extracted factors were further classified into three separate domains: Perceived poor capacity to attract mates, desiring the freedom of choice, and currently being in between relationships. The domain structure, the relative importance of each factor and domain, as well as sex and age effects were relatively consistent across countries. There were also important differences however, including the differing effect sizes of sex and age effects between countries.


  • cross-cultural research, evolutionary mismatch, mating, singlehood