Planetary science and exploration in the deep subsurface: results from the MINAR Program, Boulby Mine, UK

Authors Organisations
  • Samuel J. Payler(Author)
    University of Edinburgh
  • Jennifer F. Biddle(Author)
    University of Delaware
  • Andrew J. Coates(Author)
    University College London
  • Claire R. Cousins(Author)
    University of St Andrews
  • Rachel Cross(Author)
  • David C. Cullen(Author)
    Cranfield University
  • Michael T. Downs(Author)
    Kennedy Space Center
  • Susana O. L. Direito(Author)
    University of Edinburgh
  • Thomas Edwards(Author)
    Cleveland Potash Ltd
  • Amber L. Gray(Author)
    Blekinge Institute of Technology
  • Jac Genis(Author)
    Cleveland Potash Ltd
  • Matt Gunn(Author)
  • Graeme M. Hansford(Author)
    University of Leicester
  • Patrick Harkness(Author)
    University of Glasgow
  • John Holt(Author)
    University of Leicester
  • Jean-Luc Josset(Author)
    Space Exploration Institute
  • Xuan Li(Author)
    University of Glasgow
  • David S. Lees(Author)
    Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (BAERI)
  • Darlene S. S. Lim(Author)
    Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (BAERI)
    Ames Research Center
  • Melissa Mchugh(Author)
    University of Leicester
  • David Mcluckie(Author)
    Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (BAERI)
  • Emma Meehan(Author)
    STFC Boulby Underground Science Facility
  • Sean M. Paling(Author)
    STFC Boulby Underground Science Facility
  • Audrey Souchon(Author)
    Space Exploration Institute
  • Louise Yeoman(Author)
    STFC Boulby Underground Science Facility
  • Charles S. Cockell(Author)
    University of Edinburgh
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-129
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Astrobiology
Issue number2
Early online date20 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - 01 Apr 2017
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The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst
establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multiinstrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly
effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the
habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.


  • analog research, deep subsuface, habitability, instrument testing, spinn-off