Self-incompatibility (SI) in Lolium perenne is controlled gametophytically by the S–Z two-locus system. S and Z loci mapped to L. perenne linkage groups 1 and 2, respectively, with their corresponding putative-syntenic regions on rice chromosome 5 (R5) and R4. None of the gene products of S and Z have yet been identified. SI cDNA libraries were developed to enrich for SI expressed genes in L. perenne. Transcripts were identified from the SI libraries that were orthologous to sequences on rice R4 and R5. These represent potential SI candidate genes. Altogether ten expressed SI candidate genes were identified. A rapid increase in gene expression within two minutes after pollen-stigma contact was revealed, reaching a maximum between 2 and 10 min. The potential involvement of these genes in the SI reactions is discussed.