We have utilised polymorphic chloroplast microsatellites to analyse cytoplasmic relationships between accessions in the genera Triticum and Aegilops. Sequencing of PCR products revealed point mutations and insertions/deletions in addition to the standard repeat length expansion/contraction which most likely represent ancient synapomorphies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinct groups of accessions. One of these contained all the non-Aegilops speltoides S-type cytoplasm species, another comprised almost exclusively A, C, D, M, N, T and U cytoplasm-type accessions and the third contained the polyploid Triticum species and all the Ae. speltoides accessions, further confirming that Ae. speltoides or a closely related but now extinct species was the original B-genome donor of cultivated polyploid wheat. Successive decreases in levels of genetic diversity due to domestication were also observed. Finally, we highlight the importance of elucidating longer-term evolutionary processes operating at microsatellite repeat loci.