Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free-living actinobacterium

Authors Organisations
  • Mike Young(Author)
  • Vladislav Artsatbanov(Author)
    Bah Institute of Biochemistry
  • Harry R. Beller(Author)
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Govind Chandra(Author)
    John Innes Centre
  • Keith F. Chater(Author)
    John Innes Centre
  • Lynn G. Dover(Author)
    Northumbria University
  • Ee-Been Goh(Author)
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Tamar Kahan(Author)
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Arseny S. Kaprelyants(Author)
    Bah Institute of Biochemistry
  • Nikos Kyrpides(Author)
    Joint Genome Institute
  • Alla Lapidus(Author)
    Joint Genome Institute
  • Stephen R. Lowry(Author)
    Joint Genome Institute
  • Athanasios Lykidis(Author)
    Joint Genome Institute
  • Jacques Mahillon(Author)
    Université catholique de Louvain
  • Victor Markowitz(Author)
    University of California, Berkeley
  • Konstantinos Mavromatis(Author)
    Joint Genome Institute
  • Galina V. Mukamolova(Author)
    University of Leicester
  • Aharon Oren(Author)
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • J. Stefan Rokem(Author)
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School
  • Margaret C. M. Smith(Author)
    University of Aberdeen
  • D. I. Young(Author)
  • Charles L. Greenblatt(Author)
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)841-860
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Bacteriology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 01 Feb 2010
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Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, 'Fleming strain') has one of the smallest genomes of free-living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content, 73%) predicted to encode 2,403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 insertion sequence (IS) elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and 14 response regulators, a finding indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to beta-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin-binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to most other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy, and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three-gene cluster essential for this metabolism has been identified in the genome.