The rumen is a highly diverse ecosystem comprising different microbial groups including methanogens that consume a considerable part of the ruminant’s nutrient energy in methane production. The consequences of methanogenesis in the rumen may result in the low productivity and possibly will have a negative impact on the sustainability of the ruminant’s production. Since enteric fermentation emission is one of the major sources of methane and is influenced by a number of environmental factors, diet being the most significant one, a number of in vitro and in vivo trials have been conducted with different feed supplements (halogenated methane analogues, bacteriocins, propionate enhancers, acetogens, fats etc.) for mitigating methane emissions directly or indirectly, yet extensive research is required before reaching a realistic solution. Keeping this in view, the present article aimed to cover comprehensively the different aspects of rumen methanogenesis such as the phylogeny of methanogens, their microbial ecology, factors affecting methane emission, mitigation strategies and need for further study.