Defining Fatty Acid Changes Linked to Rumen Development, Weaning and Growth in Holstein-Friesian Heifers

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Defining Fatty Acid Changes Linked to Rumen Development, Weaning and Growth in Holstein-Friesian Heifers. / Taylor, Emma N.; Han, Jiwan; Fan, Congying; Beckmann, Manfred; Hewinson, Glyn; Rooke, David; Koets, Ad P.; Mur, Luis A.J.

In: Metabolites, Vol. 12, No. 5, 374, 20.04.2022.

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@article{a946dd571e304eb880910e004ebe19e0,
title = "Defining Fatty Acid Changes Linked to Rumen Development, Weaning and Growth in Holstein-Friesian Heifers",
abstract = "After birth, as effectively monogastric animals, calves undergo substantial physiological changes to become ruminants by 3 months of age and reach sexual maturity at approximately 15 months of age. Herein, we assess longitudinal metabolomic changes in Holstein-Friesian (HF) heifers from birth until sexual maturity during this developmental process. Sera from 20 healthy, HF heifers were sampled biweekly from 2 weeks of age until 13 months of age and then monthly until 19 months of age. Sera were assessed using flow infusion electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) on a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for high-throughput, sensitive, non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of the derived metabolomes indicated changes detectable in heifers{\textquoteright} sera over time. Time series analyses identified 30 metabolites that could be related to rumen development and weaning at ~3 months of age. Further time series analysis identified 40 metabolites that could be correlated with growth. These findings highlight the role of acetic acid and 3-phenylpropionate (3-PP) in rumen development and growth, suggest that weaning induces elevated levels of fatty acyls in response to a post-weaning stress-induced innate immune response and demonstrate the utilization of fatty acyls in growth. The identified metabolites offer serum metabolites which could inform the nutrition and healthy development of heifers.",
keywords = "metabolomics, fatty acids, eicosanoids, rumen development, weaning, growth, IMMUNE-RESPONSES, DAIRY HEIFERS, MILK, PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM, HEALTH, BIRTH, GRAIN, TIME, COWS",
author = "Taylor, {Emma N.} and Jiwan Han and Congying Fan and Manfred Beckmann and Glyn Hewinson and David Rooke and Koets, {Ad P.} and Mur, {Luis A.J.}",
note = "Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS), a pan-Wales higher level skills initiative led by Bangor University on behalf of the HE section in Wales, grant number AU30033. The KESS2 project sponsor was ProTEM Services Ltd., with contributions from Sona Nanotech. The APCs were funded by the College of Software, Shanxi Agricultural University. Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.",
year = "2022",
month = apr,
day = "20",
doi = "10.3390/metabo12050374",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Metabolites",
issn = "2218-1989",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute",
number = "5",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Defining Fatty Acid Changes Linked to Rumen Development, Weaning and Growth in Holstein-Friesian Heifers

AU - Taylor, Emma N.

AU - Han, Jiwan

AU - Fan, Congying

AU - Beckmann, Manfred

AU - Hewinson, Glyn

AU - Rooke, David

AU - Koets, Ad P.

AU - Mur, Luis A.J.

N1 - Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS), a pan-Wales higher level skills initiative led by Bangor University on behalf of the HE section in Wales, grant number AU30033. The KESS2 project sponsor was ProTEM Services Ltd., with contributions from Sona Nanotech. The APCs were funded by the College of Software, Shanxi Agricultural University. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

PY - 2022/4/20

Y1 - 2022/4/20

N2 - After birth, as effectively monogastric animals, calves undergo substantial physiological changes to become ruminants by 3 months of age and reach sexual maturity at approximately 15 months of age. Herein, we assess longitudinal metabolomic changes in Holstein-Friesian (HF) heifers from birth until sexual maturity during this developmental process. Sera from 20 healthy, HF heifers were sampled biweekly from 2 weeks of age until 13 months of age and then monthly until 19 months of age. Sera were assessed using flow infusion electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) on a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for high-throughput, sensitive, non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of the derived metabolomes indicated changes detectable in heifers’ sera over time. Time series analyses identified 30 metabolites that could be related to rumen development and weaning at ~3 months of age. Further time series analysis identified 40 metabolites that could be correlated with growth. These findings highlight the role of acetic acid and 3-phenylpropionate (3-PP) in rumen development and growth, suggest that weaning induces elevated levels of fatty acyls in response to a post-weaning stress-induced innate immune response and demonstrate the utilization of fatty acyls in growth. The identified metabolites offer serum metabolites which could inform the nutrition and healthy development of heifers.

AB - After birth, as effectively monogastric animals, calves undergo substantial physiological changes to become ruminants by 3 months of age and reach sexual maturity at approximately 15 months of age. Herein, we assess longitudinal metabolomic changes in Holstein-Friesian (HF) heifers from birth until sexual maturity during this developmental process. Sera from 20 healthy, HF heifers were sampled biweekly from 2 weeks of age until 13 months of age and then monthly until 19 months of age. Sera were assessed using flow infusion electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) on a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for high-throughput, sensitive, non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of the derived metabolomes indicated changes detectable in heifers’ sera over time. Time series analyses identified 30 metabolites that could be related to rumen development and weaning at ~3 months of age. Further time series analysis identified 40 metabolites that could be correlated with growth. These findings highlight the role of acetic acid and 3-phenylpropionate (3-PP) in rumen development and growth, suggest that weaning induces elevated levels of fatty acyls in response to a post-weaning stress-induced innate immune response and demonstrate the utilization of fatty acyls in growth. The identified metabolites offer serum metabolites which could inform the nutrition and healthy development of heifers.

KW - metabolomics

KW - fatty acids

KW - eicosanoids

KW - rumen development

KW - weaning

KW - growth

KW - IMMUNE-RESPONSES

KW - DAIRY HEIFERS

KW - MILK

KW - PERFORMANCE

KW - METABOLISM

KW - HEALTH

KW - BIRTH

KW - GRAIN

KW - TIME

KW - COWS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85129364004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/metabo12050374

DO - 10.3390/metabo12050374

M3 - Article

C2 - 35629878

AN - SCOPUS:85129364004

VL - 12

JO - Metabolites

JF - Metabolites

SN - 2218-1989

IS - 5

M1 - 374

ER -

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