‘Dark’ and ‘Clear’ Y in Medieval Welsh OrthographyCaligula versus Teilo

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‘Dark’ and ‘Clear’ Y in Medieval Welsh Orthography : Caligula versus Teilo. / Sims-Williams, Patrick.

In: Transactions of the Philological Society, Vol. 1191, 04.06.2021, p. 9-47.

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Sims-Williams, Patrick. / ‘Dark’ and ‘Clear’ Y in Medieval Welsh Orthography : Caligula versus Teilo. In: Transactions of the Philological Society. 2021 ; Vol. 1191. pp. 9-47.

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@article{3f2af2d3f8da4b3f89997f53c481831d,
title = "{\textquoteleft}Dark{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}Clear{\textquoteright} Y in Medieval Welsh Orthography: Caligula versus Teilo",
abstract = "A famous exception to the {\textquoteleft}phonetic spelling system{\textquoteright} of Welsh is the use of for both /ǝ/ and the retracted high vowel /ɨ(:)/. This double use of was almost universally adopted by c. 1330, when a grammarian labelled /ǝ/ and /ɨ/ as {\textquoteleft}dark y{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}clear y{\textquoteright} and illustrated them with polysyllables such as ystyr /ˈǝstɨr/ {\textquoteleft}meaning{\textquoteright}, in which the value of was predictable from the position of in the word. At that time the three-way system of urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0001 for /i(:)/, {\textquoteleft}dark{\textquoteright} , and {\textquoteleft}clear{\textquoteright} was two centuries old, being first attested in Braint Teilo ({\textquoteleft}The Privilege of St Teilo{\textquoteright}), c. 1130. Yet the {\textquoteleft}Teilo{\textquoteright} system is rarely attested before c. 1300; instead all three phonemes might be represented by urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0002, as commonly before 1100, or by ; or might be used for /ǝ/ and/or for /ɨ(:)/, as had sometimes occurred in Old Welsh as well. This article argues that one reason, apart from scribal conservatism, for the delay in adopting the {\textquoteleft}Teilo{\textquoteright} system was its failure to distinguish the value of in proclitics such y /ǝ/ {\textquoteleft}the{\textquoteright} and y /ɨ/ {\textquoteleft}his/her{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}to{\textquoteright}. For this the ultimately abortive {\textquoteleft}Caligula{\textquoteright} system (c. 1250) had offered a solution.",
author = "Patrick Sims-Williams",
note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021 The Authors. Transactions of the Philological Society published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Philological Society",
year = "2021",
month = jun,
day = "4",
doi = "10.1111/1467-968X.12205",
language = "English",
volume = "1191",
pages = "9--47",
journal = "Transactions of the Philological Society",
issn = "0079-1636",
publisher = "Wiley",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - ‘Dark’ and ‘Clear’ Y in Medieval Welsh Orthography

T2 - Caligula versus Teilo

AU - Sims-Williams, Patrick

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Transactions of the Philological Society published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Philological Society

PY - 2021/6/4

Y1 - 2021/6/4

N2 - A famous exception to the ‘phonetic spelling system’ of Welsh is the use of for both /ǝ/ and the retracted high vowel /ɨ(:)/. This double use of was almost universally adopted by c. 1330, when a grammarian labelled /ǝ/ and /ɨ/ as ‘dark y’ and ‘clear y’ and illustrated them with polysyllables such as ystyr /ˈǝstɨr/ ‘meaning’, in which the value of was predictable from the position of in the word. At that time the three-way system of urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0001 for /i(:)/, ‘dark’ , and ‘clear’ was two centuries old, being first attested in Braint Teilo (‘The Privilege of St Teilo’), c. 1130. Yet the ‘Teilo’ system is rarely attested before c. 1300; instead all three phonemes might be represented by urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0002, as commonly before 1100, or by ; or might be used for /ǝ/ and/or for /ɨ(:)/, as had sometimes occurred in Old Welsh as well. This article argues that one reason, apart from scribal conservatism, for the delay in adopting the ‘Teilo’ system was its failure to distinguish the value of in proclitics such y /ǝ/ ‘the’ and y /ɨ/ ‘his/her’ and ‘to’. For this the ultimately abortive ‘Caligula’ system (c. 1250) had offered a solution.

AB - A famous exception to the ‘phonetic spelling system’ of Welsh is the use of for both /ǝ/ and the retracted high vowel /ɨ(:)/. This double use of was almost universally adopted by c. 1330, when a grammarian labelled /ǝ/ and /ɨ/ as ‘dark y’ and ‘clear y’ and illustrated them with polysyllables such as ystyr /ˈǝstɨr/ ‘meaning’, in which the value of was predictable from the position of in the word. At that time the three-way system of urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0001 for /i(:)/, ‘dark’ , and ‘clear’ was two centuries old, being first attested in Braint Teilo (‘The Privilege of St Teilo’), c. 1130. Yet the ‘Teilo’ system is rarely attested before c. 1300; instead all three phonemes might be represented by urn:x-wiley:00791636:media:trps12205:trps12205-math-0002, as commonly before 1100, or by ; or might be used for /ǝ/ and/or for /ɨ(:)/, as had sometimes occurred in Old Welsh as well. This article argues that one reason, apart from scribal conservatism, for the delay in adopting the ‘Teilo’ system was its failure to distinguish the value of in proclitics such y /ǝ/ ‘the’ and y /ɨ/ ‘his/her’ and ‘to’. For this the ultimately abortive ‘Caligula’ system (c. 1250) had offered a solution.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85107204144&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/1467-968X.12205

DO - 10.1111/1467-968X.12205

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85107204144

VL - 1191

SP - 9

EP - 47

JO - Transactions of the Philological Society

JF - Transactions of the Philological Society

SN - 0079-1636

ER -

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