The functional centromeres of rice (Oryza sativa, AA genome) chromosomes contain two key DNA components: the CRR centromeric retrotransposons and a 155-bp satellite repeat, CentO. However, several wild Oryza species lack the CentO repeat. We developed a chromatin immunoprecipitation-based technique to clone DNA fragments derived from chromatin containing the centromeric histone H3 variant CenH3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation cloning was carried out in the CentO-less species Oryza rhizomatis (CC genome) and Oryza brachyantha (FF genome). Three previously uncharacterized genome-specific satellite repeats, CentO-C1, CentO-C2, and CentO-F, were discovered in the centromeres of these two species. An 80-bp DNA region was found to be conserved in CentO-C1, CentO, and centromeric satellite repeats from maize and pearl millet, species which diverged from rice many millions of years ago. In contrast, the CentO-F repeat shows no sequence similarity to other centromeric repeats but has almost completely replaced other centromeric sequences in O. brachyantha, including the CRR-related sequences that normally constitute a significant fraction of the centromeric DNA in grass species.