Amplified melt and flow of the Greenland ice sheet driven by late-summer cyclonic rainfall

Authors Organisations
  • Samuel Doyle(Author)
  • Alun Hubbard(Author)
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway
  • Roderik van de Wal(Author)
    Utrecht University
  • Jason Box(Author)
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
    Ohio State University
  • Dirk van As(Author)
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
  • Killian Scharrer(Author)
    Enveo IT GmbH, Innsbruck 6020, Austria,
  • Toby Meierbachtol(Author)
    University of Montana
  • Paul Smeets(Author)
    Utrecht University
  • Joel Harper(Author)
    University of Montana
  • Emma Johansson(Author)
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,
    University of Stockholm
  • Ruth Mottram(Author)
    Danish Meteorological Institute
  • Andreas Mikkelsen(Author)
    University of Copenhagen
  • Frank Wilhelms(Author)
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
    University of Gottingen
  • Henry Patton(Author)
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway
  • Poul Christoffersen(Author)
    University of Cambridge
  • Bryn Hubbard(Author)
Type Article
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-653
Number of pages7
JournalNature Geoscience
Issue number8
Early online date13 Jul 2015
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2015
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Intense rainfall events significantly affect Alpine and Alaskan glaciers through enhanced melting, ice-flow acceleration and subglacial sediment erosion, yet their impact on the Greenland ice sheet has not been assessed. Here we present measurements of ice velocity, subglacial water pressure and meteorological variables from the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet during a week of warm, wet cyclonic weather in late August and early September 2011. We find that extreme surface runoff from melt and rainfall led to a widespread acceleration in ice flow that extended 140 km into the ice-sheet interior. We suggest that the late-season timing was critical in promoting rapid runoff across an extensive bare ice surface that overwhelmed a subglacial hydrological system in transition to a less-efficient winter mode. Reanalysis data reveal that similar cyclonic weather conditions prevailed across southern and western Greenland during this time, and we observe a corresponding ice-flow response at all land- and marine-terminating glaciers in these regions for which data are available. Given that the advection of warm, moist air masses and rainfall over Greenland is expected to become more frequent in the coming decades, our findings portend a previously unforeseen vulnerability of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change.


  • Greenland ice sheet, rain, dynamics, hydrology, climate change, glaciology, meterology