A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory

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A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. / Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 215, No. 20, 01.10.2012, p. 3566-3576.

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Harvard

Fruson, L, Dalesman, S & Lukowiak, K 2012, 'A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory' Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 215, no. 20, pp. 3566-3576. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.070300

APA

Fruson, L., Dalesman, S., & Lukowiak, K. (2012). A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215(20), 3566-3576. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.070300

Vancouver

Fruson L, Dalesman S, Lukowiak K. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 Oct 1;215(20):3566-3576. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.070300

Author

Fruson, Lee ; Dalesman, Sarah ; Lukowiak, Ken. / A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 ; Vol. 215, No. 20. pp. 3566-3576.

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@article{5d2413355c8f456f9c558e9bbe5b2e92,
title = "A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory",
abstract = "Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15.mg.l-1) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5.h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ∼3.h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24.h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.",
keywords = "(-)epicatechin, Flavonol, Long-term memory, Lymnaea stagnalis, Memory enhancement, Operant conditioning",
author = "Lee Fruson and Sarah Dalesman and Ken Lukowiak",
note = "Fruson, L., Dalesman, S., Lukowiak, K. (2012). A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215 (20), 3566-3576",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.070300",
language = "English",
volume = "215",
pages = "3566--3576",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "The Company of Biologists",
number = "20",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory

AU - Fruson, Lee

AU - Dalesman, Sarah

AU - Lukowiak, Ken

N1 - Fruson, L., Dalesman, S., Lukowiak, K. (2012). A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215 (20), 3566-3576

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15.mg.l-1) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5.h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ∼3.h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24.h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

AB - Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15.mg.l-1) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5.h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ∼3.h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24.h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

KW - (-)epicatechin

KW - Flavonol

KW - Long-term memory

KW - Lymnaea stagnalis

KW - Memory enhancement

KW - Operant conditioning

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866869190&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/2160/35367

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.070300

DO - 10.1242/jeb.070300

M3 - Article

VL - 215

SP - 3566

EP - 3576

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 20

ER -

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