Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) is an enzyme involved in the regulation of cellular levels of phosphoinositides involved in various physiological processes, such as cytoskeletal organization, ion channel activation, and vesicle trafficking. In animals, research has focused on the modes of activation and function of PIPKs, providing an understanding of the importance of plasma membrane localization. However, it still remains unclear how this issue is regulated in plant PIPKs. Here, we demonstrate that the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain, which contains the activation loop, is sufficient for plasma membrane localization of PpPIPK1, a type I/II B PIPK from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The importance of the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain for plasma membrane localization was confirmed with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPIP5K1. Our findings, in which substitution of a conserved dibasic amino acid pair in the activation loop of PpPIPK1 completely prevented plasma membrane targeting and abolished enzymatic activity, demonstrate its critical role in these processes. Placing our results in the context of studies of eukaryotic PIPKs led us to conclude that the function of the dibasic amino acid pair in the activation loop in type I/II PIPKs is plant specific.
- Amino Acid Sequence, Amino Acids, Diamino, Animals, Arabidopsis, Bryopsida, Catalytic Domain, Cell Membrane, Conserved Sequence, Enzyme Activation, Molecular Sequence Data, Onions, Phosphatidic Acids, Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor), Protein Transport, Protoplasts, Structure-Activity Relationship, Subcellular Fractions