A single chromosome of the grass species Festuca pratensis has been introgressed into Lolium perenne to produce a diploid monosomic substitution line (2n 2x 14). The chromatin of F. pratensis and L. perenne can be distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and it is therefore possible to visualize the substituted F. pratensis chromosome in the L. perenne background and to study chiasma formation in a single marked bivalent. Recombination occurs freely in the F. pratensis/L. perenne bivalent, and chiasma frequency counts give a predicted map length for this bivalent of 76 cM. The substituted F. pratensis chromosome was also mapped with 104 EcoRI/Tru91 and HindIII/Tru91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), generating a marker map of 81 cM. This map length is almost identical to the map length of 76 cM predicted from the chiasma frequency data. The work demonstrates a 1:1 correspondence between chiasma frequency and recombination and, in addition, the absence of chromatid interference across the Festuca and Lolium centromeres.