The genus Parapterulicium was first introduced to accommodate two Brazilian species of coralloid fungi with affinities to Pterulaceae (Agaricales). Despite the coralloid habit and the presence of skeletal hyphae, other features, notably the presence of gloeocystidia, dichophyses and papillate hyphal ends, differentiate this genus from Pterulaceae sensu stricto. Fieldwork in Brazil resulted in the rediscovery of two coralloid fungi identifiable as Parapterulicium, the first verified collections of this genus since Corner’s original work in the 1950s. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nrITS and nrLSU sequences from these modern specimens revealed affinities with the /peniophorales clade in the Russulales, rather than Pterulaceae. The presence of distinctive hyphal elements, homologous to the defining features of /peniophorales, is consistent with the phylogenetic evidence and thus clearly distinguished Parapterulicium and its type species P. subarbusculum from Pterulaceae, placing this genus within /peniophorales. Parapterulicium was also found to be polyphyletic so Baltazaria gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate P. octopodites, Scytinostroma galactinum, S. neogalactinum and S. eurasiaticogalactinum also within /peniophorales.
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- Reclassification of Parapterulicium Corner (Pterulaceae, Agaricales), contributions to Lachnocladiaceae and Peniophoraceae (Russulales) and introduction of Baltazaria gen. nov.
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