Disentangling visual and olfactory signals in mushroom-mimicking Dracula orchids using realistic three-dimensional printed flowers

Awduron Sefydliadau
  • Tobias Policha(Awdur)
    University of Oregon
  • Aleah Davis(Awdur)
    University of Oregon
  • Melinda Barnadas(Awdur)
    University of California, San Diego
    Magpie Studio: Fabrication for Art and Science; La Jolla CA 92092 USA
  • Bryn Dentinger(Awdur)
    Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Robert A. Raguso(Awdur)
    Cornell University
  • Bitty A. Roy(Awdur)
    University of Oregon
Math Erthygl
Iaith wreiddiolSaesneg
Tudalennau (o-i)1058-1071
CyfnodolynNew Phytologist
Rhif y cyfnodolyn3
Dyddiad ar-lein cynnar15 Chwef 2016
Dangosyddion eitem ddigidol (DOIs)
StatwsCyhoeddwyd - 01 Mai 2016
Cysylltiad parhaol
Gweld graff cysylltiadau
Fformatau enwi


Flowers use olfactory and visual signals to communicate with pollinators. Disentangling the relative contributions and potential synergies between signals remains a challenge. Understanding the perceptual biases exploited by floral mimicry illuminates the evolution of these signals. Here, we disentangle the olfactory and visual components of Dracula lafleurii, which mimics mushrooms in size, shape, color and scent, and is pollinated by mushroom-associated flies.
To decouple signals, we used three-dimensional printing to produce realistic artificial flower molds that were color matched and cast using scent-free surgical silicone, to which we could add scent. We used GC-MS to measure scents in co-occurring mushrooms, and related orchids, and used these scents in field experiments.
By combining silicone flower parts with real floral organs, we created chimeras that identified the mushroom-like labellum as a source of volatile attraction. In addition, we showed remarkable overlap in the volatile chemistry between D. lafleurii and co-occurring mushrooms.
The characters defining the genus Dracula – a mushroom-like, ‘gilled’ labellum and a showy, patterned calyx – enhance pollinator attraction by exploiting the visual and chemosensory perceptual biases of drosophilid flies. Our techniques for the manipulation of complex traits in a nonmodel system not conducive to gene silencing or selective breeding are useful for other systems.